UNIT–I INTRODUCTION: Generalized approach to measuring systems. Function descriptions. Transducers- Active and passive, primary and secondary transducers. Input- output configuration of measuring instruments and Instrument systems. UNIT–II GENERALIZED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUMENTS: Static characteristics- Accuracy, Precision, Errors, Uncertainty and Bias. Static sensitivity. Linearity. UNIT–III TRANSDUCERS: Resistive pots, Strain gauges, LVDTs, capacitive transducers, piezoelectric transducers, Hall Effect transducers. Digital shaft position encoder, Ultrasonic transducers, Seismic sensors. UNIT–IV PROCESS INSTRUMENT: Measurement of temperature (RTD, thermistors, thermocouples, pyrometers). Measurement of Force and Pressure (Bellows, Bourdon tubes, Load cells, Diaphragm etc). Level measurement. UNIT–V SERVO COMPONENTS: Synchros, DC and AC servomotors, Tachogenerators, Stepper Motor. UNIT–VI PROCESS CONTROL: Elements of generalized process control, Control system parameters, Types of controller modes, Final control elements and actuators, Instrumentation and controls in dairy plant, Instrumentation and controls in CIP and sanitizing TEXT BOOK: 1. Electrical measurements and measuring instruments: swahney.A.K (Dhanpat Rai) 2. Instrumentation, Measurement and Analysis: Nakra, Choudhury (Tata McGraw) 3. Introduction to Instrumentation and Control : A. K. Ghosh (PHI) REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Electrical Measurements & Measuring Instruments: J. B. Gupta (KATSON) 2. Measurement System Application And Design: Doeblin.E.O. (Tata McGraw)