Political Science is a mother subject in the entire Social Science domain. It has 7 core branches and many other sub-branches. Political thought and theory are one of the core fields of the subject. It describes the political tradition of ancient Greece, the origin of Roman law and the vastness of Indian political thoughts. The paper briefs down the socio-political and cultural society of ancient, medieval and modern India. The paper discusses the significant political thinking of Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, J.S Mill, Karl Marx, Gandhi, Ambedkar, M.N Roy, J.P Narayan. It offers a text on contemporary political thinking.